Historical Development Of Intellectual Property

The initial patent (USPTO 5,113,661 ) described the basic geometry and the science of

the absolute negative pressure  medium contraction  ( i.e. bubble expansion) in terms of

the increase in the degeneracy of the metastable electron gas in the cryogenic metallic


The second patent (USPTO 7581403B2 ) of this technology address the many

constraints and subsystem components needed for the negative pressure energy system

to function properly.Amongst these are:

  1. Pre-compression (pre-pressurization) of the cryogenic metallic lithium prior to bubble formation (i.e. cavitaton), necessary for rapid bubble collapse.
  2. Controlling temperature of the sapphire windows so that peak thermal conductivity can be achieved,
  3. Monitoring the light emission from the collapsing bubble(s) needed for controlling the magnetic field strength. (Light emission should be controlled to a absolute  minimum as the energy needs to be transferred to the magnetic field and any light emission could damage the B4C laser target.
  4. Having the laser pulse at regular timed intervals thus controlling the bubble formation. ( Control of the driving process).

The third patent (USPTO 11143304-B 2 ) details the necessary pre-compression of the

cryogenic metallic lithium (see paper “Plastic workability of pure lithium”).

Additionally cryogenic metallic lithium is martensitic in cryogenic temperature range of

these devices it is therefore necessary to have a laser target of B4C (i.e. boron carbide) 

embedded in the cryogenic metallic lithium that causes the bubbles to form. Also to

allow pre-compression of the cryogenic metallic lithium the sapphire windows must be

hermetically sealed using a KOVAR bellows brazed to each of the sapphire windows

The third USPTO patent also has a Continuation In Part which covers additional

geometries for the lithium sapphire hermetic sealing.